From the discussion about the Korea peninsula by the allied nations of the war at the time, it was a general item of
an agreement to operate trusteeship by American, U.K., china and USSR before giving complete independency to Korea.
But because of the participation of USSR in the war, earlier surrender by Japan then expected and the rapid attack
toward Korea by Russia, the America and USSR separately occupied Korea peninsula based on the 38-boundary line before
the agreement of detailed process about the discussion took a place.
The early stage occupation policy of two country were fundamentally different, the basic national gain and the difference of the international strategy of two countries originated these.
|USSR recognized the 38line politically from the start and carried communizing
the northern part of Korea forward having "Establishment of revolutionary democratic base" as the presenting
policy. On the other hand American recognized 38line only militarily and planed for the establishment of united
Korea government throughout Korea after the completion of the surrender procedure of Japan.
The Korean people, who were full of the expectation of the independent and liberation, were about to face national tragedy of the division and ideological complication from the political situation of the liberation without any plan or systematical agreement about the independent government establishment not understanding the international political situation over Korea at the time caused of the opposing occupation policy between America and Soviet Union. In order to resolve the situation that Korea was to stay divided, according to American and Soviet Union's early stage occupation policy, American reached the point where they had to make some kind of conclusion about the measure of Korea's problem discussed during the was with Soviet union.
That is, the problem of division within in Korea is to be solved by the governmentally, not militarily anymore. So that from 16th Dec 1945, the conference of the foreign ministers of America, USSR and U.K was opened at Moscow. In the conference, 3 ministers discussed the future of Korea with the occupant of Japan extensively. The future if Korea, that was about the definite operation method of trusteeship. The conclusion of the Conference of 3 ministers was known in Korea on the next day of the announcement of the conclusion was made, on 28th Dec. 1945. The Korean political circle was already excited with the trusteeship opposing & removal of 38line acts caused of the proposal about the Korea trusteeship operation plan of America director of Far East, Vincent.
In such situation, the news that the trusteeships of Korea were officially decided, was whole surprise to our people who were longing for the independent government. As a result, the act of opposing trusteeship and 38line removal has heated up and this act was spreaded nationally till 31st Dec. 1945.
The leftist system has organized the national nationalism fighting line centering Joseon communist party and spread
support trusteeship Act more positively. Like this the national boundary was in the situation of intensive confronting
dividing as support and anti-support then America-Soviet joint Committee were opened following Moscow accord. Based on
the Moscow accord, the conference of America-Soviet took place in Korea from 16th Jan 1946 to 5th Feb. 1946 about the
problem of Korea and between 20th Mar to 8th May same year, the first America-Soviet joint Committee and on 21st May
1947, the second American-Soviet joint committee took place in Seoul.
But this America-Soviet committee raised criticism over and over again and confronts of capacity problem and the range of social party as well as the political party that can be the conference subject twice, eventually had completely broken down as the 62nd conference on 18th Oct 1947 as the last. As the effort to actualize the Moscow accord about the problem of Korea through America-Soviet joint committee has failed. American believed in solving the problem on Korea through UN is the only way, so that they have presented the problem to UN, 1st Sep. 1947, as well as notifying such opinion to USSR at the same time. UN political committee began their discussion from 28th Oct.
But even in this discussion American and Soviets showed intensive confrontation over problem on Korea as well. At the end on 14th Nov. 1947 UN general meeting introduced organization of provisional committee and declared general election related operation of Korea. The UN Korea provisional Committee arrived in Korea on 8th Jan 148 and started action but Soviet refused to admit the Committee in to North Korean region on 23rd Jan.
Accordingly, UN decided to run general election where it is possible on 26th Feb, according to the decision on 10th May, the general election was operated for the 1st time in Korean political history and the Constituent National Assembly were established. Also, 17th June constitution was proclaimed.
With election of Sungman Lee, the first president, on 15th Aug. 1948, the republic of Korea was established. Soon as the republic of Korea was established, the UN provisional Korea committee introduce the final report to be reported to UN general assembly on 8th Oct. In this report they appointed that government of Korea was established by the president elected by people and this government is gradually developing and recommended to consider the way of unifying and granting independence to Korea under the cooperation of all member nations of UN.
The 3rd general conference on 6th Dec. introduced the resolution of invitation, so that the President of the republic
of Korea can participate. To this the government of Korea sent the delegation to UN general conference for the 1st time.
Then, UN general conference presented the report of Korea provisional Committee and discussed. And on 12th Dec.
Introduced resolution of the governement of the republic of Korea Peninsula (The 195th paragraph of UN general
conference resolution). After UN general conference authorized the government of republic of Korea, 6th Jan 1949,
America approved the republic of Korea and likewise each liberal friendly countries approved republic of Korea one by
So that the government of Korea were approved as a legitimate government in international society.
On the other hand, on 8th Feb. 1946 in North Korea, the 'North Korea the provisional Peoples Commissariat, the actual organization of the political power were established with Ilsung Kim as the chairman constructing the political system of Soviet-union like with independent political power character, before South Korea. And on 14th June, they stated the independent establishment of Communism political power policy, officially named as the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea. As UN introduced the UN Korea provisional committee setup and determinate about the general election operation of South Korea on 14th Nov. 1947 with the breakdown of America-Soviet joint committee, North Korea refused to admit the UN Korea provisional committee and rushed establishing the peoples republic.
Therefore on 18th Nov 1947, North Korea organized the North Korea provisional enactment of constitution committee of representative social party as well as each political power belonged to democratic peoples unification line under the aim of "Unificational constitutions are to be established by North Korea" and introduced the draft constitution on Apr. 1948. Along with the report of a draft constitution, North Korea organized and started North Korea Peoples conference and North Korea labor party according to the communist government system. And on 8th Feb. 1948, they established Peoples republic, that is the armament power of labor before the establishment of the government of North Korea, operated delegate election of the highest Peoples Commissariat through the open vote about single candidate on 25th Aug. 1948 and structured a ministry on 8th Sep.
Finally on 9th Sep.1948, the Democratic Peoples republic of Korea ministry were established with Ilsung Kim as a minister. To this, in the South and North of Korean peninsula, two different government s were established starting the official divisional history.